【纺织知识】纺织品常见疵点及其成因(属于织造原因部分)/【Textile knowledge】Common defects in textiles and their causes (belonging to the reason of weaving)
一、纺织品瑕疵介绍（Introduction to textiles）.
From the fiber raw material to the final manufacture of the finished fabric, it needs to be subjected to spinning, weaving, printing and dyeing, etc., and each project needs to be completed after a continuous number of processes.
In all levels of processing, improper setting conditions, negligence of personnel operations, mechanical failures, etc., may cause defects in the appearance of the product. In theory, the more layers of processing, the higher the probability of occurrence of defects
This shortcoming that can be seen in the appearance of fabrics is called FabricDefect. However, there is no abnormality in the state of the grey cloth. If it is bleached or dyed, it will appear prominently. This kind of general is called Latent Defect or hidden sputum.
There is a saying in my country: "Make more mistakes, less mistakes, less good." Although this language is not suitable for modern work, it is very practical for use in the multi-level processing of textiles.
There are few perfect things in the world, and the spinning process can cause defects in the original yarn, such as cotton (Nep), slub, etc.; the weaving process will cause the fabric to produce flaws, such as Mispicks, Broken ( BrokenEnds); printing and dyeing projects can cause defects in the finished fabric, such as DyeSpot, TailingorEnding, etc. Finished fabrics of good quality should be minimal.
If there is a lot of finished fabrics, whether it is used for clothing, clothing, or other daily necessities and decorations, it will affect its appearance and reduce its value.
二、织物瑕疵之外观特征与成因（The appearance characteristics and causes of fabric enamel）.
From fiber to finished fabric, the processing stage can be divided into four stages: spinning, Weaving, Scouring & Bleaching, Dyeing, Printing and Finishing.
Now, in the various stages that may occur, the general characteristics of the factory are used to describe the appearance characteristics and the reasons for the generation:
①属于织造原因者(Is the reason for weaving)
In the wool of the knitted fabric, the horizontally continuous loops are woven from coarse or fine yarns of a relatively standard yarn. Usually more than a single root, but even there are parallel or multiple roots. It is different from the normal one.
When the knitted fabric is woven, the operator misuses the yarn of a non-designated count or Danny's size. Misuse of finer yarns makes the fabric appear thin. Misuse of thicker yarn, the fabric looks thicker
The warp yarn of the woven fabric has a single one or a plurality of thicknesses of a non-specified specification. If it is a finer yarn, it is called FineEnd. If it is a thicker yarn, it is called CoarseEnd.
When the warping is taken, the number of yarns that are taken through is wrong, and warp yarns of non-specified specifications are used. Such cockroaches are often full-fledged.
The weft of the woven fabric has one or a plurality of thicknesses of non-specified specifications. If it is a fine yarn, it is called FinePick. If it is a thicker yarn, it is called CoarsePick.
When weaving, the weft yarn of the weft yarn, or the yarn count of the shuttleless weaving machine is fed incorrectly, and weft yarn of a non-specified specification is used. After the operator discovers it, he will stop it and remove it. However, the automatic change of the looms is often difficult to find.
That is, the weaving method is wrong, and the texture of the cloth surface is different from the original designer. For example, the left twill is woven into a right twill or the like.
Usually caused by wearing errors. Others such as jacquard fabrics have wrong patterns, and warp yarns of multi-standard warp fabrics are arranged incorrectly.
The two adjacent warp yarns are joined together and are woven into the cloth according to the fabric structure. As such, the root (actually two) yarns are particularly thick. Such cockroaches are all defamatory, as found in the initial weaving of the warp beam, and one of the juxtapositions can be completely avoided.
1.When the warp is being stretched, the two are neglected as one.
2.After the sizing, the yarns are unclear, and the two stick together and form the same root.
3.Wear two piercings into the same heald when wearing the heddle.
Two weft yarns are woven into the same weaving mouth, and there are also three or more roots. The length of the latitude is not equal, and the width of the fabric is wider, and more than 10 cm in the vicinity of the two sides.
1. The width and length of the fabric are long and the latitude is not checked. Or the weft needle fails, and the weft break does not stop.
2. The length of the non-full length is not enough, because the length of the insurance yarn is not enough, the edge shear is improperly set or not sharp enough, and the yarn tail is not removed after the weft.
The density of the weft arrangement on the cloth surface is less than specified. The weft yarn woven in a length along the length of the fabric gradually becomes thinner from the normal density, and then gradually returns to the original density from the thinnest to form a sparse cloth surface of equal width and width.
1.The probe of the weft is out of order, and the whirl is continued when there is no weft.
2.The warp tension is improperly controlled during weaving.
3.The warp tension adjustment is too tight before stopping and driving.
The density of the weft arrangement on the cloth surface is denser than that specified. The weft yarn woven in a length along the length of the fabric gradually densifies from the normal density, and then gradually returns to the original density from the densest, forming a tight cloth of equal width and narrowness.
1.The warp tension is improperly controlled during weaving.
2.The warp tension adjustment is too loose when the machine is stopped and then driven.
The weft yarn of the grey fabric was not properly removed, and after the weaving was continued, there were still traces left on the cloth surface.
In the weaving of fabrics, the operator found that weft woven into the weft, or weaved a serious dense road, thin, and immediately stopped the weft yarn to be cut and removed. When the warp is removed, the warp is subjected to the friction of the weft removal, and a large amount of hairiness is generated. Therefore, after re-weaving, a wide and narrow hairy cloth surface is presented in the original demolition range.
One or more of the warp yarns of the fabric are broken, so that the distance between the adjacent yarns on the left and right sides becomes large. In a plain weave, it becomes two yarns juxtaposed, like a warp. In twill fabrics, the fabric has a discontinuity.
The warp yarn was interrupted in the weaving, the self-stop device failed, and the warp yarn was not properly connected and the weaving was continued.
The weft yarn in the fabric is broken, but the distance between the ends of the break is very close, that is, the length of the break is small. This kind of cockroaches is generally not significant.
1.The weft yarn breaks in the weaving, but it continues to weave in an instant, only a short distance.
2.The weft yarn has severe rough knots and flying flowers, which cause the weft yarn to break when it is removed.
This kind of flaws only occurs in twill weave, in the warp yarns of the same part of each complete tissue, while floating on the cloth surface, which looks like a set of feet.
When the twill fabric is less woven into one weft yarn, the interlacing point is reduced, and part of the warp yarn is floated twice on the weft yarn.
The weft yarns of the fabric are woven into the cloth with a small length of twisted and twisted together. Fabrics woven in strong crepe are more likely to occur.
One of the warp yarns of the fabric has a small length of crimped and twisted together and woven into the cloth. Fabrics woven in strong crepe are more likely to occur.
1. In the weft yarn tube or in the cheese yarn used for the weft yarn, there has been a phenomenon in which the small-length yarn is wound and twisted.
2.The weft tube is not formed properly, and the yarn is not smooth when it is retracted.
3.The weft tension is too small, the opening of the weaving opening is not clear.
In the two warp yarns of the grey fabric, there is a large interval, and the weft yarn weaving can be seen, and the zigzag marks are affected by the steel teeth.
1.The deformation of the steel caries, the warp yarns are not controlled to be positioned, or the caries are loose.
2.There is one or a few of the warp yarns, and the tension applied during weaving is too large.
There are about 2 to 5 cm wide acupuncture or scratches on the edge of the cloth. In severe cases, the weft yarn of this part is undulated.
The thickness of the needle used for the temples is not suitable, and the stab ring of the temples cannot be rotated, or the rotation is not smooth enough.
In the position near the cloth edge, there are many broken filaments in succession. Although it is connected, there are still many yarn tails on the fabric after continuous weaving, and the cloth surface woven from the joint is sparsely abnormal.
The shuttle is clamped in the shed, which cuts off many warp yarns. Mostly caused by poor shuttle structure, the pick-up and opening movement are hindered. The use of the shuttleless loom can avoid this kind of flaw.
The two warp yarns of the phase judgment are squeezed together, and the gap between the left two and the right two is increased, and the weft yarn forms a square lattice with a checkerboard shape.
1.The angle at which the weaving opening is opened during weaving is too large.
2.The tension between the upper and lower layers is too large.
3.The density of the teeth of the steel shovel is uneven.
On the cloth surface or at the edge of the cloth, there is a yarn tail that protrudes from the cloth surface.
Since the warp or weft yarn is broken, the yarn end is not cut off after the completion. Or the edge of the loom is not broken, and the tail of the yarn after the weft is not cut off.
There is a tightly knotted ball of coarse size on the cloth surface.
After the warp or weft yarn is broken and joined, the knot is too large to protrude from the cloth surface.
Warp or weft yarns are not woven in accordance with the specified structure, but float on the cloth surface.
The angle at which the weaving opening is opened is too small, or the heald is suspended, and a few warp yarns are particularly slack.
The warp yarn or the weft yarn of the phase judgment has the yarn skipping of the continuity of the same part, so that the fabric of one part has no interlacing point and forms a mesh shape.
Same as jumping yarn, only serious.
The warp and weft yarns of the grey fabric are broken to form holes of different sizes. This type of warp tends to occur in fabrics that are denser in warp and weft.
The shuttle rubs and the licking roller holds the fishing hook, which will break the warp and weft, and the rolling will also break the warp.
The tension of a single warp yarn is less woven, or the warp yarn is too loose after the warp yarns are joined.
A warp yarn woven into a cloth has a phenomenon of upward arching at a point where it is interlaced, compared with a normal convex and concave cloth surface. Generally referred to in the factory as the ribs.
A single weft yarn is less subject to weaving during weaving.
In the cloth pattern, one warp pattern is relatively flat, and the interlacing point has a concave cloth surface. The twill and satin fabrics are more obvious, and the serious ones may cause the cloth body to be uneven.
One of the warp yarns is too tight for the weaving, or the yarn is too tight after the warp yarn breaks.
One of the weft yarns in the cloth pattern is relatively flat, and the interlacing point has a concave cloth surface. Such cockroaches are relatively rare, and they are neither obvious nor tight.
The detachment of the weft or the unwinding of the weft is not smooth, and the tension caused by the occasional weaving is too large.
A number of warp or weft yarns are juxtaposed in a curved shape to form a gap.
Larger thick knots, flying flowers, shrinkage, weft shrinkage, etc., after being removed, the adjacent warp or weft yarns are not combed by steel comb.
Weaving has serious flaws, and although it has been removed and repaired, traces remain.
Broken warp, thin sputum, dense road, etc., although the fabrics are combed by the fabrics, the arrangement of the yarns is still abnormal and there is a phenomenon of bending.
The weft yarn in the fabric is not straight, and the weft yarn with a small area is curved in the same direction. In the case where the filamentary fiber is used as a warp yarn, the short fiber spinning is used as a weft yarn, or the warp yarn is much thinner than the weft yarn. For example, rich silk, pull cloth, oxford cloth, etc.
1.The fabric is not properly designed, and the warp and weft yarns are easy to slip.
2.The weft density is relatively thin, and the tension of the warp yarn is too large when weaving.
3.During the printing and dyeing finishing process, the cloth is excessively clamped by intermittent during travel.
The side yarn of the cloth edge is broken more than three times, and the edge of the cloth is split to form a defect.
1.When the weaving yarn is subjected to excessive tension, it is broken.
2.If the temple is not used properly or the specifications do not match, the side yarn will be broken.
The fabric weaving is straight, but the fabric inside the fabric is loose and wrinkled. The fabric is not as flat as the fabric. If the cloth is flattened, the cloth edge is in a state of tighter cloth, or the cloth surface has a hanging pocket.
The warp tension of the cloth edge during weaving is too large.
The edge of the cloth is not flat, like the shape of the lotus leaf. Such as
The warp yarn used as a hem at the time of weaving is too loose.
The outermost edges of the two fabric edges are not straight and are zigzag curved.
1.The number of warp yarns used as the edge of the cloth is too small, or the edge of the cloth is not joined after the edge is broken, resulting in insufficient number of side yarns.
2.The tension of the picking force or the weft yarn is too large.
The density of the weft yarn on the surface of the cloth, the micro-period changes in periodicity, and it is considered to have a feeling of a thin section.
The tension sent by the warp yarn during weaving or the rate at which the warp yarn is sent out is unstable.
The distance between the two rows of loops of the knitted fabric is larger than normal. The line segments connecting the two loops in the transverse direction tend to be straight.
When the weft knitted fabric is woven, the yarn is not eaten into the needle, so that a series of loops are woven.
The fabric that is dyed first, or the fabric with different specifications of yarn on the tissue, the yarns are not arranged according to the design, and the pattern or pattern does not achieve the desired effect. Mostly occur in slivers, plaid fabrics and jacquard fabrics of various specifications.
1.The number of warp yarns and plaid fabrics is not specified, or the number of woven fabrics of weft woven fabrics is not specified, resulting in abnormal shape of slivers and lattices.
2.The warp yarns of different specifications are not arranged according to the regulations, or the weft yarns of different specifications are not woven according to the regulations.
A dry block or spot of the slurry appears on the surface of the grey fabric.
The slurry for sizing is not completely gelatinized, the grout roller is worn, and the surface of the roller is not flat.
Grayish black or reddish mildew spots appear on the surface of the grey fabric.
The storage location is too humid and the storage time is too long.