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【纺织知识】纺织品常见疵点及其成因(属于织造原因部分)/【Textile knowledge】Common defects in textiles and their causes (belonging to the reason of weaving)

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【摘要】:
【纺织知识】纺织品常见疵点及其成因(属于织造原因部分)/【Textile knowledge】Common defects in textiles and their causes (belonging to the reason of weaving)

一、纺织品瑕疵介绍(Introduction to textiles).

 

由纤维原料到最后制造成成品织物,需经过纺纱、织造、印染等工程,且每种工程中,又需经过一连续多个加工过程(Process)始能完成。

From the fiber raw material to the final manufacture of the finished fabric, it needs to be subjected to spinning, weaving, printing and dyeing, etc., and each project needs to be completed after a continuous number of processes.

 

在各层次的加工中,设定条件之不当,人员操作之疏忽,机械之故障等,均可能致使产品发生外观上之缺点。就理论上言之,加工之层次愈多,则发生缺点之机率亦愈高。

In all levels of processing, improper setting conditions, negligence of personnel operations, mechanical failures, etc., may cause defects in the appearance of the product. In theory, the more layers of processing, the higher the probability of occurrence of defects

 

在织物外观所能见到之此种缺点,称谓织物瑕疵(FabricDefect)。但亦有在坯布状态无异状,若经漂、染加工后则显著出现,此种一般多称之谓潜隐瑕疵(LatentDefect)或隐性瑕疵。

This shortcoming that can be seen in the appearance of fabrics is called FabricDefect. However, there is no abnormality in the state of the grey cloth. If it is bleached or dyed, it will appear prominently. This kind of general is called Latent Defect or hidden sputum.

 

我国有一句俗语:「多作多错,少作少错,不作不错。」,此语虽在现代工作精神上不合时宜,但用在纺织多层次加工所产生之瑕疵上却甚为切合实际。

There is a saying in my country: "Make more mistakes, less mistakes, less good." Although this language is not suitable for modern work, it is very practical for use in the multi-level processing of textiles.

 

世界上少有完美之事物,纺纱工程会使原纱产生瑕疵,例如棉粒(Nep)、粗结(Slub)等;织造工程会使坯布产生瑕疵,例如并纬(Mispicks)、断经(BrokenEnds)等;印染工程会使成品布产生瑕疵,例如染料点(DyeSpot)、结尾色差(TailingorEnding)等。品质优良之成品织物,其瑕疵应为极少。

There are few perfect things in the world, and the spinning process can cause defects in the original yarn, such as cotton (Nep), slub, etc.; the weaving process will cause the fabric to produce flaws, such as Mispicks, Broken ( BrokenEnds); printing and dyeing projects can cause defects in the finished fabric, such as DyeSpot, TailingorEnding, etc. Finished fabrics of good quality should be minimal.

 

如某种成品织物之瑕疵甚多,无论是用作制衣、被服、或其它日用品及装饰品,均会影响其美观,而降低其价值。

If there is a lot of finished fabrics, whether it is used for clothing, clothing, or other daily necessities and decorations, it will affect its appearance and reduce its value.

 

二、织物瑕疵之外观特征与成因(The appearance characteristics and causes of fabric enamel).

 

由纤维至成品织物,加工之阶段可分为纺纱(Spinning),织造(Weaving),练漂、染色、印花(Scouring&Bleaching,Dyeing,Printing)与整理加工(Finishing)四大阶段。

From fiber to finished fabric, the processing stage can be divided into four stages: spinning, Weaving, Scouring & Bleaching, Dyeing, Printing and Finishing.

 

现以在各阶段中可能发生之瑕疵,用工厂一般通用之名称,就其外观特征与生成之原因分述于下:

Now, in the various stages that may occur, the general characteristics of the factory are used to describe the appearance characteristics and the reasons for the generation:

 

属于织造原因者(Is the reason for weaving)

 

1.异纱(WrongYarn)

 

外观(Exterior):

在针织物之毛中,横向连续之毛圈,由较规格用纱为粗或细之纱织造而成。一般多为单根,但偶亦有并列或间隔多根者。视之稀密、厚薄与正常者不同。

In the wool of the knitted fabric, the horizontally continuous loops are woven from coarse or fine yarns of a relatively standard yarn. Usually more than a single root, but even there are parallel or multiple roots. It is different from the normal one.

 

成因(Causes):

在针织物织造时,操作人员误用非指定支数或丹尼规格之纱编织。误用较细之纱,则织物显得稀薄。误用较粗之纱,则织物显得密厚。

When the knitted fabric is woven, the operator misuses the yarn of a non-designated count or Danny's size. Misuse of finer yarns makes the fabric appear thin. Misuse of thicker yarn, the fabric looks thicker

 

2.异经(WrongEnd)

 

外观(Exterior):

梭织物之经纱有单独一根或并列数根非指定规格之粗细者。若为较细之纱,则称谓细经(FineEnd)。若为较粗之纱,则称谓粗经(CoarseEnd)。

The warp yarn of the woven fabric has a single one or a plurality of thicknesses of a non-specified specification. If it is a finer yarn, it is called FineEnd. If it is a thicker yarn, it is called CoarseEnd.

 

成因(Causes):

于整经时取用牵经之筒子纱支数错误,使用非指定规格之经纱。此种瑕疵经常为全疋性者。

When the warping is taken, the number of yarns that are taken through is wrong, and warp yarns of non-specified specifications are used. Such cockroaches are often full-fledged.

 

 

3.异纬(WrongPick)

 

外观(Exterior):

梭织物之纬物,有一根或连续多根非指定规格之粗细者。若为较细之纱,则称谓细纬(FinePick)。若为较粗之纱,则称谓粗纬(CoarsePick)。

The weft of the woven fabric has one or a plurality of thicknesses of non-specified specifications. If it is a fine yarn, it is called FinePick. If it is a thicker yarn, it is called CoarsePick.

 

成因(Causes):

于织造时,纬纱管之纬纱,或无梭织机喂入之筒子纱支数错误,使用非指定规格之纬纱。操作人员于发现后,多予以停机拆除。但自动换管之织机,则往往不易发现。

When weaving, the weft yarn of the weft yarn, or the yarn count of the shuttleless weaving machine is fed incorrectly, and weft yarn of a non-specified specification is used. After the operator discovers it, he will stop it and remove it. However, the automatic change of the looms is often difficult to find.

 

4.组织错误(WrongWeaving)

 

外观(Exterior):

即织法错误,布面之织纹与原设计者不同。例如左斜纹织成右斜纹等。

That is, the weaving method is wrong, and the texture of the cloth surface is different from the original designer. For example, the left twill is woven into a right twill or the like.

 

成因(Causes):

一般多为穿综错误所造成。其它如提花织物之纹板错误,多规格经纱织物之经纱排列错误等。

Usually caused by wearing errors. Others such as jacquard fabrics have wrong patterns, and warp yarns of multi-standard warp fabrics are arranged incorrectly.

 

5.并经(WrongDraw)

 

外观(Exterior):

相邻之两根经纱并在一起,依织物组织当作一根织入布中者。视之,该根(实为两根)纱显得特别粗。此种瑕疵均为全疋性者,如在经轴初织时发现,剔除并列中之一根,则能完全避免。

The two adjacent warp yarns are joined together and are woven into the cloth according to the fabric structure. As such, the root (actually two) yarns are particularly thick. Such cockroaches are all defamatory, as found in the initial weaving of the warp beam, and one of the juxtapositions can be completely avoided.

 

成因(Causes):

1.整经牵纱时即疏忽将两根当作一根。

1.When the warp is being stretched, the two are neglected as one.

 

2.浆纱后分纱不清,两根黏在一起,形同一根。

2.After the sizing, the yarns are unclear, and the two stick together and form the same root.

 

3.穿综时两根穿入同一综丝。

3.Wear two piercings into the same heald when wearing the heddle.

 

6.并纬(Mispick)

 

外观(Exterior):

纬纱两根织入同一织口内,偶亦有三根或更多根者。并纬之长度长短不等,以织物全幅宽者,与在近两布边10公分上下者较多。

Two weft yarns are woven into the same weaving mouth, and there are also three or more roots. The length of the latitude is not equal, and the width of the fabric is wider, and more than 10 cm in the vicinity of the two sides.

 

成因(Causes):

1.织物全幅长之并纬,系因停机排除故障后,未查对织口开车。或探纬针失效,断纬未自停。

1. The width and length of the fabric are long and the latitude is not checked. Or the weft needle fails, and the weft break does not stop.

 

2.非全幅长之并纬,经因保险纱之长度不够,边剪设定不当或不够锐利,及断纬后未将纱尾清除。

2. The length of the non-full length is not enough, because the length of the insurance yarn is not enough, the edge shear is improperly set or not sharp enough, and the yarn tail is not removed after the weft.

 

7.稀衖(SetMark,Fine)

 

外观(Exterior):

布面上纬纱排列之密度较规定稀少。沿织物长度一段织入之纬纱,由正常密度逐渐变稀,再由最稀逐渐恢复至原来密度,形成一条等宽窄之稀疏布面。

The density of the weft arrangement on the cloth surface is less than specified. The weft yarn woven in a length along the length of the fabric gradually becomes thinner from the normal density, and then gradually returns to the original density from the thinnest to form a sparse cloth surface of equal width and width.

 

成因(Causes):

1.探纬针失灵,无纬纱时继续空转送经。

1.The probe of the weft is out of order, and the whirl is continued when there is no weft.

 

2.织造时经纱张力控制不当。

2.The warp tension is improperly controlled during weaving.

 

3.停机再开车前经纱张力调整太紧。

3.The warp tension adjustment is too tight before stopping and driving.

 

8.密路(SetMark,Coarse)

 

外观(Exterior):

布面上纬纱排列之密度,较规定密集。沿织物长度一段织入之纬纱,由正常密度逐渐变密,再由最密逐渐恢复至原来密度,形成一条等宽窄之紧密布面。

The density of the weft arrangement on the cloth surface is denser than that specified. The weft yarn woven in a length along the length of the fabric gradually densifies from the normal density, and then gradually returns to the original density from the densest, forming a tight cloth of equal width and narrowness.

 

成因(Causes):

1.织造时经纱张力控制不当。

1.The warp tension is improperly controlled during weaving.

 

2.停机再开车时经纱张力调整太松。

2.The warp tension adjustment is too loose when the machine is stopped and then driven.

 

9.拆痕(Pick-OutMark)

 

外观(Exterior):

坯布纬纱拆除不善,再继续织造后,布面上仍留有痕迹者。

The weft yarn of the grey fabric was not properly removed, and after the weaving was continued, there were still traces left on the cloth surface.

 

成因(Causes):

在织物织造中,作业人员发现有异纬织入,或织造出严重之密路、稀衖,立即停机将该织入之纬纱剪断拆除。于拆除时经纱受到纬纱摘下之摩擦,产生大量之毛羽,故重织后,在原拆除之范围,呈现一条宽窄相等之多毛羽布面。

In the weaving of fabrics, the operator found that weft woven into the weft, or weaved a serious dense road, thin, and immediately stopped the weft yarn to be cut and removed. When the warp is removed, the warp is subjected to the friction of the weft removal, and a large amount of hairiness is generated. Therefore, after re-weaving, a wide and narrow hairy cloth surface is presented in the original demolition range.

 

10.断经(BrokenEnd)

 

外观(Exterior):

织物之经纱断掉一根或多根,致其左右两相邻纱间之距离变大。在平纹织物,则变成两根断纱并列,如同并经。在斜纹织物,则布纹有间断之现象。

One or more of the warp yarns of the fabric are broken, so that the distance between the adjacent yarns on the left and right sides becomes large. In a plain weave, it becomes two yarns juxtaposed, like a warp. In twill fabrics, the fabric has a discontinuity.

 

成因(Causes):

经纱于织造中断掉,自停装置失灵,未将经纱接妥而继续织造。

The warp yarn was interrupted in the weaving, the self-stop device failed, and the warp yarn was not properly connected and the weaving was continued.

 

11.断纬(BrokenPick)

 

外观(Exterior):

织物中之纬纱断掉,但断开之两端距离甚近,即断掉之长短较小。此种瑕疵一般多不显著。

The weft yarn in the fabric is broken, but the distance between the ends of the break is very close, that is, the length of the break is small. This kind of cockroaches is generally not significant.

 

成因(Causes):

1.纬纱于织造中断裂,但瞬间仍继续织入,仅缺一小段距离。

1.The weft yarn breaks in the weaving, but it continues to weave in an instant, only a short distance.

 

2.纬纱上有严重之粗结与飞花等,于拆除时导致纬纱断裂。

2.The weft yarn has severe rough knots and flying flowers, which cause the weft yarn to break when it is removed.

 

12.百脚(缺纬)

 

外观(Exterior):

此种瑕疵仅发生在斜纹织造,在每一完全组织同部位之经纱,同时浮于布面,状似一集蜈蜙之多脚。

This kind of flaws only occurs in twill weave, in the warp yarns of the same part of each complete tissue, while floating on the cloth surface, which looks like a set of feet.

 

成因(Causes):

斜纹布少织入一根纬纱,则交织点减少,部份经纱连续两次浮于纬纱上。

When the twill fabric is less woven into one weft yarn, the interlacing point is reduced, and part of the warp yarn is floated twice on the weft yarn.

 

13.经缩(EndSnarl)

 

外观(Exterior):

织物经纱中之一根,有一小段卷缩缠扭在一起而织入布中。在强捻纱织造之织物则较易发生。

The weft yarns of the fabric are woven into the cloth with a small length of twisted and twisted together. Fabrics woven in strong crepe are more likely to occur.

 

14.纬缩(FillingSnarl)

 

外观(Exterior):

织物纬纱有一小段卷缩缠扭在一起而织入布中。在强捻纱织造之织物则较易发生。

One of the warp yarns of the fabric has a small length of crimped and twisted together and woven into the cloth. Fabrics woven in strong crepe are more likely to occur.

 

成因(Causes):

1.纬纱管中或作纬纱用之筒子纱中,已有小段纱卷缩缠扭之现象。

1. In the weft yarn tube or in the cheese yarn used for the weft yarn, there has been a phenomenon in which the small-length yarn is wound and twisted.

 

2.纬纱管成形不当,退纱时不畅顺。

2.The weft tube is not formed properly, and the yarn is not smooth when it is retracted.

 

 

3.纬纱张力太小,织口开口不清等。

3.The weft tension is too small, the opening of the weaving opening is not clear.

 

15.筘痕(ReedMark)

 

外观(Exterior):

在坯布之两根经纱间,有较大之间隔,且能看到织入之纬纱,受钢筘筘齿之作用而锯齿形痕迹。

In the two warp yarns of the grey fabric, there is a large interval, and the weft yarn weaving can be seen, and the zigzag marks are affected by the steel teeth.

 

成因(Causes):

1.钢筘筘齿变形,未能将经纱控制在定位,或者筘齿发生松动。

1.The deformation of the steel caries, the warp yarns are not controlled to be positioned, or the caries are loose.

 

2.经纱中有一根或间隔之数根,于织造时所受之张力过大。

2.There is one or a few of the warp yarns, and the tension applied during weaving is too large.

 

16.边撑痕(TempleMark)

 

外观(Exterior):

在布边内有约2至5公分宽之针刺或受针刺刮拉之痕迹。严重者致使该部位之纬纱发生波浪形之弯曲。

There are about 2 to 5 cm wide acupuncture or scratches on the edge of the cloth. In severe cases, the weft yarn of this part is undulated.

 

成因(Causes):

边撑器选用之针粗细不宜,及边撑器刺环卡死不能回转,或回转不够畅顺。

The thickness of the needle used for the temples is not suitable, and the stab ring of the temples cannot be rotated, or the rotation is not smooth enough.

 

17.轧梭

 

外观(Exterior):

在近布边之位置,连续有甚多根之断经,虽经接妥,但在续织后布面仍有许多纱尾,且接合部位织出之布面,稀密异常。

In the position near the cloth edge, there are many broken filaments in succession. Although it is connected, there are still many yarn tails on the fabric after continuous weaving, and the cloth surface woven from the joint is sparsely abnormal.

 

成因(Causes):

梭子在梭道中被夹持,因之截断甚多之经纱。多由梭子结构不良,投梭与开口运动受到阻碍所形成。现使用之无梭织机,则可避免此种瑕疵之发生。

The shuttle is clamped in the shed, which cuts off many warp yarns. Mostly caused by poor shuttle structure, the pick-up and opening movement are hindered. The use of the shuttleless loom can avoid this kind of flaw.

 

18.方眼(Reedness)

 

外观(Exterior):

相判之两根经纱挤在一起,左两根与右两根间之空隙则增大,与纬纱形成棋盘状之小方格子。

The two warp yarns of the phase judgment are squeezed together, and the gap between the left two and the right two is increased, and the weft yarn forms a square lattice with a checkerboard shape.

 

成因(Causes):

1.织造时织口启开之角度过大。

1.The angle at which the weaving opening is opened during weaving is too large.

 

2.上下两层之经纱张力相差过大。

2.The tension between the upper and lower layers is too large.

 

3.钢筘之筘齿排列密度不匀。

3.The density of the teeth of the steel shovel is uneven.

 

19.纱尾(YarnTail)

 

外观(Exterior):

在布面上或布边处,残留有伸出布面之纱尾。

On the cloth surface or at the edge of the cloth, there is a yarn tail that protrudes from the cloth surface.

 

成因(Causes):

因经纱或纬纱断裂,接妥后未将纱尾剪除。或织机之边剪失灵,未将换纬后之纱尾剪除。

Since the warp or weft yarn is broken, the yarn end is not cut off after the completion. Or the edge of the loom is not broken, and the tail of the yarn after the weft is not cut off.

 

20.接头(Knot)

 

外观(Exterior):

布面上有紧密打结之粗大小圆球。

There is a tightly knotted ball of coarse size on the cloth surface.

 

成因(Causes):

经纱或纬纱断裂后接合,所打之结太大,凸出于布面。

After the warp or weft yarn is broken and joined, the knot is too large to protrude from the cloth surface.

 

21.跳纱(Float)

 

外观(Exterior):

经纱或纬纱未依照规定之组织织入,而浮于布面上者。

Warp or weft yarns are not woven in accordance with the specified structure, but float on the cloth surface.

 

成因(Causes):

织口启开之角度太小,或综丝悬吊不平,及少数之经纱特别松弛。

The angle at which the weaving opening is opened is too small, or the heald is suspended, and a few warp yarns are particularly slack.

 

22.蛛网

 

外观(Exterior):

相判之经纱或纬纱,发生同部位连续性之跳纱,而使让一部位之织物无交织点,形成网状。

The warp yarn or the weft yarn of the phase judgment has the yarn skipping of the continuity of the same part, so that the fabric of one part has no interlacing point and forms a mesh shape.

 

成因(Causes):

与跳纱同,唯较严重。

Same as jumping yarn, only serious.

 

23.织造破洞(WeavingHole)

 

外观(Exterior):

坯布之经纬纱断裂,形成大小不同之破洞。此种瑕疵易发生在经纬较密之织物。

The warp and weft yarns of the grey fabric are broken to form holes of different sizes. This type of warp tends to occur in fabrics that are denser in warp and weft.

 

成因(Causes):

梭子摩擦,刺辊把持钓挂,均会使经纬断裂,再者轧梭亦可使经纱崩断。

 

24.松经(SlackEnd)

 

外观(Exterior):

一根织入布中之经纱,在其交织点部位,较正常者凸凹布面,有向上拱起之现象。一般在工厂多称之谓筋立。

The shuttle rubs and the licking roller holds the fishing hook, which will break the warp and weft, and the rolling will also break the warp.

 

成因(Causes):

单独一根之经纱织造时所受之张力较小,或将经纱接合后该根经纱过于松弛。

The tension of a single warp yarn is less woven, or the warp yarn is too loose after the warp yarns are joined.

 

25.松纬(SlackFiling)

 

外观(Exterior):

一根织入布中之纬纱,在其交织点部位,较正常者凸出于布面,有向上拱起之现象。一般多不明显。

A warp yarn woven into a cloth has a phenomenon of upward arching at a point where it is interlaced, compared with a normal convex and concave cloth surface. Generally referred to in the factory as the ribs.

 

成因(Causes):

单独一根之纬纱,织造时所受之张力较小。

A single weft yarn is less subject to weaving during weaving.

 

26.紧经(TightEnd)

 

外观(Exterior):

布纹中一根经纹较为平值,交织点有凹入布面之现象,在斜纹、缎纹织物较为明显,严重者会导致布身不平。

In the cloth pattern, one warp pattern is relatively flat, and the interlacing point has a concave cloth surface. The twill and satin fabrics are more obvious, and the serious ones may cause the cloth body to be uneven.

 

成因(Causes):

经纱中之一根于织造所受之张力过大,或经纱断裂后接合拉得太紧。

One of the warp yarns is too tight for the weaving, or the yarn is too tight after the warp yarn breaks.

 

27.紧纬(TithtFilling)

 

外观(Exterior):

布纹中一根纬纱较为平值,交织点有凹入布面之现象。此种瑕疵较为少见,既有之亦较紧经为不明显。

One of the weft yarns in the cloth pattern is relatively flat, and the interlacing point has a concave cloth surface. Such cockroaches are relatively rare, and they are neither obvious nor tight.

 

成因(Causes):

纬线退管或退筒不畅顺,偶然在织入时所受之张力过大。

The detachment of the weft or the unwinding of the weft is not smooth, and the tension caused by the occasional weaving is too large.

 

28.裂隙

 

外观(Exterior):

并列之数根经纱或纬纱,成弧形倾斜,形成缝隙者。

A number of warp or weft yarns are juxtaposed in a curved shape to form a gap.

 

成因(Causes):

较大之粗结、飞花、经缩、纬缩等,经剔除后,未将其邻近之经纱或纬纱以钢梳梳理密合。

Larger thick knots, flying flowers, shrinkage, weft shrinkage, etc., after being removed, the adjacent warp or weft yarns are not combed by steel comb.

 

29.修补根

 

外观(Exterior):

织造产生严重之瑕疵,虽经排除、修补,但仍残留有痕迹。

Weaving has serious flaws, and although it has been removed and repaired, traces remain.

 

成因(Causes):

断经、稀衖、密路等,虽经修布人员用钢梳梳理,但纱之排列仍不正常,且有弯曲之现象。

Broken warp, thin sputum, dense road, etc., although the fabrics are combed by the fabrics, the arrangement of the yarns is still abnormal and there is a phenomenon of bending.

 

30.推纱(Teariness)

 

外观(Exterior):

织物中之纬纱不平直,有小片面积之纬纱同向一方向弯曲之现象。在丝状纤维用作经纱,短纤维纺纱用作纬纱,或经纱远较纬纱为细之织物则较常见。例如富贵绸、拉毛布、牛津布等。

The weft yarn in the fabric is not straight, and the weft yarn with a small area is curved in the same direction. In the case where the filamentary fiber is used as a warp yarn, the short fiber spinning is used as a weft yarn, or the warp yarn is much thinner than the weft yarn. For example, rich silk, pull cloth, oxford cloth, etc.

 

成因(Causes):

1.织物之组织设计不当,经纱与纬纱之交织点易发生滑动。

1.The fabric is not properly designed, and the warp and weft yarns are easy to slip.

 

2.纬密较稀,于织造时经纱所受之张力过大。

2.The weft density is relatively thin, and the tension of the warp yarn is too large when weaving.

 

3.在印染整理加工过程中,布行进时受间断性之过度夹持。

3.During the printing and dyeing finishing process, the cloth is excessively clamped by intermittent during travel.

 

31.破边(BrokenSeelvage)

 

外观(Exterior):

布边之边纱连续断纱三根以上,布边裂开形成缺者。

The side yarn of the cloth edge is broken more than three times, and the edge of the cloth is split to form a defect.

 

成因(Causes):

1.织造时边纱所受之张力过大,因而断裂。

1.When the weaving yarn is subjected to excessive tension, it is broken.

 

2.边撑器使用不当或规格不符,将边纱拉断。

2.If the temple is not used properly or the specifications do not match, the side yarn will be broken.

 

32.紧边(TightSelvage)

 

外观(Exterior):

布边织造平直,但在邻近布边内之布身,则有松皱之现象,布边与布身不一样平坦。如将布疋平展后,布边呈现较布面紧张之状态,或布面有垂兜现象。

The fabric weaving is straight, but the fabric inside the fabric is loose and wrinkled. The fabric is not as flat as the fabric. If the cloth is flattened, the cloth edge is in a state of tighter cloth, or the cloth surface has a hanging pocket.

 

成因(Causes):

织造时作布边之经纱张力太大。

The warp tension of the cloth edge during weaving is too large.

 

33.松边(SlackSelvage)

 

外观(Exterior):

布边不平坦,似荷叶边之形状。如将布疋平展后,布面平坦而布边有曲皱或成耳边形之现象。

The edge of the cloth is not flat, like the shape of the lotus leaf. Such as

 

成因(Causes):

织造时用作布边之经纱张力太松。

The warp yarn used as a hem at the time of weaving is too loose.

 

34.锯齿边

 

外观(Exterior):

两布边之最外边缘不平直,成锯齿形弯曲变化者。

The outermost edges of the two fabric edges are not straight and are zigzag curved.

 

成因(Causes):

1.用作布边之经纱根数太少,或布边线断裂后未再接合,致边纱根数不足。

1.The number of warp yarns used as the edge of the cloth is too small, or the edge of the cloth is not joined after the edge is broken, resulting in insufficient number of side yarns.

 

2.投梭力或纬纱引出之张力过大。

2.The tension of the picking force or the weft yarn is too large.

 

35.送经不匀

 

外观(Exterior):

布面纬纱之密度,微作周期性稀密之变化,视之有稀一段密一段之感觉。

The density of the weft yarn on the surface of the cloth, the micro-period changes in periodicity, and it is considered to have a feeling of a thin section.

 

成因(Causes):

织造时经纱送出之张力或送出经纱之速率不稳定。

The tension sent by the warp yarn during weaving or the rate at which the warp yarn is sent out is unstable.

 

36.漏针

 

外观(Exterior):

在针织物两列毛圈间之距离,较正常者为大。横向两毛圈间相连之线段趋向平直。

The distance between the two rows of loops of the knitted fabric is larger than normal. The line segments connecting the two loops in the transverse direction tend to be straight.

 

成因(Causes):

纬编针织物在织造时,因纱未吃入针内,致少织一列毛圈。

When the weft knitted fabric is woven, the yarn is not eaten into the needle, so that a series of loops are woven.

 

37.配纱错误

 

外观(Exterior):

先染纱之织物,或在组织上有不同规格纱之织物,纱未照设计之规定排列,致花纹或图案未达预期效果。多发生在条子布、格子布及多种规格经纱之提花布。

The fabric that is dyed first, or the fabric with different specifications of yarn on the tissue, the yarns are not arranged according to the design, and the pattern or pattern does not achieve the desired effect. Mostly occur in slivers, plaid fabrics and jacquard fabrics of various specifications.

 

成因(Causes):

1.条子布、格子布经纱根数配列未符规定,或格子布纬纱织入根数未符规定,致条子、格子形状异常。

1.The number of warp yarns and plaid fabrics is not specified, or the number of woven fabrics of weft woven fabrics is not specified, resulting in abnormal shape of slivers and lattices.

 

2.整经未将不同规格之经纱依规定配列,或未依照规定织入不同规格之纬纱。

2.The warp yarns of different specifications are not arranged according to the regulations, or the weft yarns of different specifications are not woven according to the regulations.

 

38.浆斑(StarchLump)

 

外观(Exterior):

在坯布之布面出现浆料干块或斑点。

A dry block or spot of the slurry appears on the surface of the grey fabric.

 

成因(Causes):

浆纱用之浆液未能完全糊化,压浆罗拉磨损,罗拉表面不平。

The slurry for sizing is not completely gelatinized, the grout roller is worn, and the surface of the roller is not flat.

 

39.霉斑

 

外观(Exterior):

坯布之表面出现灰黑色或淡红色发霉之斑点。

Grayish black or reddish mildew spots appear on the surface of the grey fabric.

 

成因(Causes):

存放位置湿度过高,存放时间过久。

The storage location is too humid and the storage time is too long.