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新闻资讯/NEWS

为什么有的经丝需要上浆?有的经丝可以免浆?在这里可以找到答案/Why do some warp yarns need sizing? Some warp yarns can be free of pulp? Find the answer here

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【摘要】:
为什么有的经丝需要上浆?有的经丝可以免浆?在这里可以找到答案/Why do some warp yarns need sizing? Some warp yarns can be free of pulp? Find the answer here...

 

合纤丝做经为什么要上浆?上浆的机理是什么?要注意什么问题?

Why do you want to sizing? What is the mechanism of sizing? What issues should I pay attention to?

 

合纤长丝是由多根单纤维复合而成的,如165dtex/48f,即表示由48根单纤维组合成165dtex的复丝,在生产过程中,丝线在受力状态下要经过络、并、捻、整等各工序,而在织造过程中,要经受导辊、综丝、钢筘的反复摩擦,丝线的摩擦多至万次以上,而喷水织机织造时的车速一般在500~700r/min,高速率摩擦单丝非常容易起毛,不但影响织造的效率,严重的会导致无法织造,而且使产品的质量明显下降,为此,要对无捻或低捻合纤长丝进行上浆,上浆后的经丝能经受加工过程中的摩擦而顺利进行织造,并保证产品的质量

The synthetic filaments are made up of a plurality of single fibers, such as 165dtex/48f, which means that 48 single fibers are combined into a 165dtex multifilament. During the production process, the filaments are subjected to the network under stress. In the weaving process, it is subject to repeated friction of the guide rolls, healds and steel shovel. The friction of the wire is more than 10,000 times, and the speed of the weaving machine is generally 500~700r. /min, high-rate friction monofilament is very easy to fluff, not only affects the efficiency of weaving, but also causes the weaving to be impossible, and the quality of the product is significantly reduced. For this reason, the sizing or sizing of the non-twisted or low-twisted filaments is required. The warp yarn can withstand the friction during processing and smoothly weave, and guarantee the quality of the product.

 

上浆的机理是:经上浆后,浆料在丝身的周围形成一层浆膜,以耐各种器材的摩擦;而浆液渗入单纤维间,将各单纤维粘住,提高复丝的集束性和强力,这样保证参顺利地完成后道工序的任务。短纤纱由于毛羽多,上浆效果要求将料以披覆为主,合纤长丝的上浆则要以渗透为主而以披覆为辅。由于合纤丝的回潮率较低,如涤纶丝的标准回潮率为0.4%,锦纶为4%,它们属于疏水性纤维,即对水不亲和,因而其上浆不像粘胶丝那么容易,它必须满足两个条件:即浆料的黏性要特好,浆料在渗 入单纤之间能将单纤相互粘住,保证获得满意的集束性,并在丝身周围形成良好的浆膜,以保证其良好的耐磨性。而在浆丝时,要保证浆丝之间有一定的距离,防止各根上浆后的复丝相互黏搭而不能织造。

The mechanism of sizing is: after sizing, the slurry forms a slurry film around the silk body to resist the friction of various equipment; while the slurry penetrates into the single fiber, the individual fibers are stuck, and the multi-fiber bundle is improved. And strong, so as to ensure the smooth completion of the tasks of the subsequent process. Due to the large hairiness of the spun yarn, the sizing effect is required to be mainly coated, and the sizing of the synthetic filaments is mainly based on infiltration and supplemented by drape. Due to the low moisture regain of the synthetic filaments, such as polyester yarn with a standard moisture regain of 0.4% and nylon of 4%, they are hydrophobic fibers, that is, they are not compatible with water, so their sizing is not as easy as viscose. It must satisfy two conditions: the viscosity of the slurry is particularly good, and the slurry can adhere the single fibers to each other after infiltrating into the single fiber, ensuring satisfactory bundleability and forming a good serosa around the filament. To ensure its good wear resistance. In the case of the pulp, it is necessary to ensure a certain distance between the filaments, and the multifilaments after the sizing are prevented from sticking to each other and cannot be woven.

 

上浆时要严格控制好上浆的浆料制备和上浆的工艺。目前国产的浆料多用丙烯酸酯,质量一般都已过关,但要进行严格的选择,特别是其黏度和浓度都应符合要求,切忌盲目选购。为了防止在浆丝过程中丝身上的消静电剂被除去,所以在浆料中要加入适量的消静电剂。为了保持丝线的柔软度,可加一定量的柔软剂,也可加适量的渗透剂和消泡剂。在制浆过程中要严格按照规定的制浆操作程序,以使浆料符合生产的要求。

The sizing slurry preparation and sizing process should be strictly controlled during sizing. At present, the domestically produced slurry is mostly acrylate, and the quality has generally passed, but strict selection is required, especially the viscosity and concentration should meet the requirements, and should not be blindly purchased. In order to prevent the antistatic agent on the filament from being removed during the filament process, an appropriate amount of antistatic agent is added to the slurry. In order to maintain the softness of the thread, a certain amount of softener may be added, and an appropriate amount of penetrant and antifoaming agent may be added. In the pulping process, the pulping operation procedures must be strictly followed in order to make the slurry meet the production requirements.

 

在生产中要切实按上浆工艺要求,要做到“七定”,即定浆黏度、定浆浓度、定浆温度、定上浆线速度、定浆丝伸长、定浆丝回潮率(定烘筒或烘燥室温度)、定上浆率。黏度是表示浆料黏性好坏的程度,而浓度是表示浆料含固体胶的多少,一般地说:二者成正丝,但由于各浆料质量的不同,即使是同一浓度的浆料,其黏性也不一样,所以严格地说二都要控制,而日常生产中,往往有些人只控制黏度,而有些人只控制浓度。浆料黏度和浓度越高,丝条强度和表面耐磨性增加,而弹性低,丝线越容易脆断,落浆也多,所以要正确控制。上浆线速度过快,生产效率虽高,但由于丝条渗透不及和包覆较差,浆丝质量变差。经丝在上浆中由于受到辊筒、上浆辊和烘筒等的拉动,一般呈现出伸长状态,但涤纶、锦纶等合纤丝是热缩性纤维,丝身经过浆槽、烘筒和热烘室浆会产生回缩,因而合纤丝上浆率一般是拉伸和回缩抵消,伸长约为0,浆伸大,丝身被拉长,强度受到一定影响,容易断头,但浆伸小,丝身受到织造时的上机张力,将被拉长而破坏浆膜,纤维容易起毛。浆丝的回潮率高,丝身容易产生黏搭,丝条收缩不匀,产生吊松经、硬度不足,严重时将产生裂轴,但回潮率低,则容易产生静电,导致纤维起毛,并且由于浆膜发硬、发脆,丝身中浆液的渗透性好,上浆质量好。但上浆率过高则会产生搭浆,甚至不能织造,而上浆率小,则丝纤维容易发毛。所以要从生产的实践中,摸索出最佳的浆丝工艺,并切实执行,这是保证浆经质量和产品质量的重要措施。

In the production, we must actually follow the requirements of the sizing process, and we must make the “seven-set”, that is, the viscosity of the slurry, the concentration of the slurry, the temperature of the slurry, the speed of the sizing line, the elongation of the fixed wire, and the moisture regain of the fixed wire. Tube or drying room temperature), set the sizing rate. Viscosity is the degree of viscosity of the slurry, and the concentration is the amount of solid glue contained in the slurry. Generally speaking, the two are in the form of a positive yarn, but due to the difference in the quality of each slurry, even the same concentration of the slurry, The viscosity is not the same, so strictly speaking, the two must be controlled. In daily production, some people only control the viscosity, while others only control the concentration. The higher the viscosity and concentration of the slurry, the higher the strength and surface wear resistance of the yarn, and the lower the elasticity, the easier the wire is to be brittle and the more the pulp is dropped, so it must be properly controlled. The speed of the sizing line is too fast, and the production efficiency is high, but the quality of the sizing is deteriorated due to poor penetration of the yarn and poor coating. The warp yarn is generally stretched in the sizing due to the pulling of the roller, the sizing roller and the drying cylinder, but the synthetic fiber such as polyester and nylon is heat-shrinkable fiber, and the silk body passes through the slurry tank, the drying cylinder and the heat. The drying room pulp will produce retraction, so the sizing rate of the combined filaments is generally offset and retracted, the elongation is about 0, the pulp stretch is large, the silk body is elongated, the strength is affected, and the head is easy to break, but the pulp When the stretch is small, the silk body is subjected to the tension of the upper machine during weaving, and will be elongated to destroy the plasma film, and the fiber is easy to fluff. The regain rate of the sizing wire is high, the silk body is easy to be glued, the yarn is not uniformly shrunk, the sling is loose, the hardness is insufficient, and when it is severe, the crack axis is generated, but the moisture regain is low, the static electricity is easily generated, and the fiber fluff is caused, and Because the serosa is hard and brittle, the permeability of the slurry in the silk body is good, and the sizing quality is good. However, if the sizing rate is too high, the pulp will be produced, and even if the sizing rate is small, the silk fiber is easy to be hairy. Therefore, from the practice of production, we must find out the best pulping process and implement it effectively. This is an important measure to ensure the quality and quality of pulp.

 

目前,浆丝机的自动化控制技术较高。只将需要的工艺参数输入计算机监控系统,就能自动控制并在线检测,还能将图像在红外线触摸屏上显示,自动记录,这里重要的是技术人员需要输入正确的工艺参数,并按记录的数据和生产的实际情况及时修正工艺参数。

At present, the automatic control technology of the pulping machine is high. Only input the required process parameters into the computer monitoring system, it can automatically control and detect online, and the image can be displayed on the infrared touch screen and automatically recorded. The important thing is that the technician needs to input the correct process parameters and press the recorded data. Correct the process parameters in time with the actual situation of production.

 

 

哪些原料可以不上浆而直接织造?

Which materials can be directly woven without sizing?

 

织造用原料可分为经用原料(线丝)和纬用原料(纬丝)两大类。一般来讲,纬丝原料在喷水织造中可以不经过任何加工和处理,开箱后即可直接上机使用,而经丝在织造过程中要受到综丝、钢筘等的多次反复拉伸、摩擦和弯曲作用,将引起经丝机械性能的下降,容易形成纤维散乱、擦毛等,而造成断经以至影响织造的顺利进行。所以选用无捻或低捻合纤长丝做经丝使用时、必须要进行上浆处理,使其织造性能提高,从而适应织机高速运转,保证织造顺利进行。

The raw materials for weaving can be divided into two major categories: raw materials (filaments) and weft materials (wefts). Generally speaking, the weft raw materials can be directly processed on the machine without any processing and processing in the water-jet weaving, and the warp yarns are repeatedly pulled by the healds, steel rafts, etc. during the weaving process. The action of stretching, rubbing and bending will cause the mechanical properties of the warp to decrease, and it is easy to form fibers scattered, rubbed, etc., which will cause the warp to affect the smooth progress of the weaving. Therefore, when the non-twisted or low-twisted synthetic filaments are used as the warp yarns, the sizing treatment must be carried out to improve the weaving performance, thereby adapting to the high-speed operation of the loom and ensuring smooth weaving.

 

那么,有哪些经丝原料可以不经过上浆而直接织造呢?

So, which warp raw materials can be directly woven without sizing?

 

根据织物要求和原料供应情况可以选用免浆丝做经丝而直接织造。免浆丝是指不需要经过上浆处理而可以直接织造生产的一类经丝原料。英文缩写词为NOY或NSY。

According to the fabric requirements and the supply of raw materials, it is possible to directly weave the yarn without the use of the yarn. The free-slurry yarn refers to a type of warp-knitted material which can be directly woven without sizing treatment. The English abbreviation is NOY or NSY.

 

 

免浆丝主要包括以下几种:

The free-free yarn mainly includes the following:

 

1.网络丝(Network wire

 

亦称交络丝,复丝在网络喷嘴中受压缩空气喷吹,使一些纤维间隔地局部纠结其他纤维而不松散,从而形成具有网络点的丝条。复丝在一定张力和速度下通过网络喷嘴时,被压缩空气按垂直方向或成一定角度方向喷吹,使复丝中的单丝强烈振动,形成错位、弯曲和其他单线缠绕,生产周期性的局部缠结的网络点,增加了抱合力,可以代替加捻。网络丝织造时不易产生毛丝断头。网络点达到150个/m以上的网络丝可不用上浆而直接织造,免浆丝主要指的也是网络丝(交络丝)。但网络度过高,则其织物表面的折光率不均匀,影响外观及手感。若要提高其可织性,还可在整经时进行上油(上蜡)或适当加以拖浆(轻浆)处理,则更能适用于高速运转的喷水织机。

Also known as collateral filaments, the multifilaments are blown by compressed air in a network nozzle, causing some of the fibers to partially entangle other fibers at intervals without loosening, thereby forming a strand having network points. When the multifilament passes through the network nozzle under a certain tension and speed, the compressed air is blown in the vertical direction or at an angle, so that the monofilament in the multifilament strongly vibrates, forming misalignment, bending and other single-wire winding, producing periodicity. Locally entangled network points increase cohesion and can be used instead of twisting. When the network wire is woven, it is not easy to produce a broken yarn. The network wire with the network point of more than 150/m can be directly woven without sizing, and the wire-free wire mainly refers to the network wire (co-filament wire). However, if the network is too high, the refractive index of the fabric surface is not uniform, which affects the appearance and feel. In order to improve the woven fabric, it can also be applied to the high-speed water jet loom by applying oiling (waxing) or properly dragging (lightening) during warping.

 

2.加捻丝(Adding silk

 

对丝进行加捻,一般捻度达6~8捻/cm以上时,织造时不需要上浆。但加工工序增多、成本提高,有时还会影响产品质量。喷水织造工程除品种要求经丝加捻外,一般不宜采用加捻丝。

The wire is twisted, and when the twist is generally 6-8 捻/cm or more, sizing is not required during weaving. However, the number of processing steps increases, the cost increases, and sometimes the quality of the product is affected. In addition to the requirement of warp twisting, the water jet weaving project is generally not suitable for twisting.

 

3.减少合纤长丝中单丝根数(Reduce the number of filaments in the filaments

 

合纤长丝织物要求绸面光滑丰满和手感柔软,所以选用原料常希望采用单丝并合根数较多的复丝。如77.8dtex(70旦)的锦纶丝有16根、18根、36根、48根等单丝组成,这种合纤丝常需要上浆后方可上机织造。若用减少复丝的单丝根数和增粗直径等方法,如上述锦纶丝单丝根数降至10根以下时,则无须上浆,只要在整经时经油剂或上蜡处理做经轴就可以上机织造。但这种方法因为单丝根数减少或直径增粗,会使织物手感硬化、外观效果差,特别是涤纶长丝织物尤为重要,故很难采用。

Synthetic filament fabrics require a smooth and full-bodied silk surface and a soft hand. Therefore, it is often desirable to use a multifilament with a plurality of monofilaments and a larger number of raw materials. For example, 77.8 dtex (70 denier) of nylon filaments consists of 16 filaments, 18 filaments, 36 filaments, and 48 filaments. This type of filament yarn often needs to be sizing before being woven on the machine. If the number of monofilaments and the diameter of the multifilament of the multifilament are reduced, if the number of filaments of the nylon filament is reduced to less than 10, the sizing is not required, as long as it is treated by oil or waxing during warping. The shaft can be woven on the machine. However, this method is difficult to use because the number of monofilaments is reduced or the diameter is increased, which makes the fabric hard and has a poor appearance. In particular, polyester filament fabrics are particularly important.