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空气变形加工技术/Air deformation processing technology,

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【摘要】:
空气变形加工技术/Air deformation processing technology

90%的纺织人不了解的知识——空气变形加工技术

Knowledge that 90% of textile people do not understand - air deformation processing technology

 

空气变形又称吹捻变形,是指利用压缩空气喷射处理长丝,以获得蓬松性而使其具有类似短纤维特性的加工方法。其产品为空气变形丝(ATY),ATY的外观与DTY完全不同。DTY赋予丝条螺旋状的卷曲变形,具有较好的弹性,但其织物不能改变合成纤维特有的闪光、蜡感、透气性差、易起球等缺点;ATY表面具有稳定的丝圈及外伸的纤维头,织物具有较高的蓬松性及抗起球性,克服了弹力丝织物的缺点,外观酷似短纤纱,加工流程比短纤纱短,设备简单,经济效益明显。

Air deformation, also known as blow deformation, refers to a process in which filaments are treated by compressed air to obtain bulkiness and have similar short fiber characteristics. Its product is air textured yarn (ATY), and the appearance of ATY is completely different from DTY. DTY imparts a spiral deformation to the spiral shape of the thread, and has good elasticity. but the fabric cannot change the special flash, waxy feeling. poor gas permeability and easy pilling of the synthetic fiber; the ATY surface has a stable loop and an overhang. The fiber head, the fabric has high bulkiness and pilling resistance. overcomes the shortcomings of the elastic silk fabric, looks like a spun yarn, has a shorter processing process than the spun yarn, simple equipment and obvious economic benefits.

 

空气变形技术是20世纪50年代初由美国杜邦公司首先研究成功,其产品为“Taslan”,故又称“塔斯纶”技术。该技术在发明后的25年里进展缓慢,主要原因在于当时只能加工中粗线密度丝,不适合衣着用,而且喷嘴结构不理想,产品均匀度差,压缩空气消耗量太大,成本高。随着喷嘴结构的不断改进,变形速度不断提高,成本日益降低。空气变形技术可加工的原丝品种多、线密度范围大,拉伸、变形、混纤可同时进行,省去加捻工序,操作简单,且产品具有类似短纤纱的天然纤维外观,可灵活多变。

The air deformation technology was first researched by DuPont in the early 1950s. Its product is “Taslan”, so it is also called “Taslon” technology. The technology has been slow in the 25 years after the invention. The main reason is that it can only process medium thick linear density silk at that time, which is not suitable for clothing, and the nozzle structure is not ideal, the product uniformity is poor, the compressed air consumption is too large, and the cost is high. . With the continuous improvement of the nozzle structure.the deformation speed is continuously increased and the cost is increasingly reduced. The air deformation technology can process many kinds of original yarns, and has a wide range of linear density. The stretching, deformation and mixing of fibers can be carried out at the same time, the twisting process is omitted, the operation is simple, and the product has the appearance of a natural fiber similar to the spun yarn, and is flexible. changeable.

 

相对于DTY和网络丝,ATY占的密度较小,2000年其产量只有假捻变形丝的1/13。但其发展很快,全世界的空气变形锭子数1982年为1.6万锭,1988年为3.5万锭,1990年为7.0万锭,2000年为12.8万锭,2003年接近15.0万锭。

Compared with DTY and network wire, ATY accounts for a small density. In 2000, its output was only 1/13 of the false twist textured yarn. However, its development has been rapid. The number of air-deformed spindles in the world was 16,000 spindles in 1982, 35,000 spindles in 1988, 70,000 spindles in 1990, 128,000 spindles in 2000, and nearly 150,000 spindles in 2003.

 

在20世纪80年代以前,空气变形机制造商只有3家,即德国EItex和Barmag公司以及美国Enterprjse公司。目前,空气变形机制造商增多好几家,如日本AiKi公司和Murata公司、意大利Giudici公司和RPR公司、法国ICBT公司、德国Erdmann公司以及瑞士Heberlein公司等。

Before the 1980s, there were only three manufacturers of air texturing machines, namely EItex and Barmag in Germany and Enterprjse in the United States. At present, there are several manufacturers of air texturing machines, such as AiKi and Murata in Japan, Giudici and RPR in Italy, ICBT in France, Erdmann in Germany, and Heberlein in Switzerland.

 

一、空气变形原理(Principle of air deformation)

 

空气变形主要通过空气变形喷嘴来实现,如图13一14所示。丝条经喷水后进入喷嘴,在喷嘴内受压缩空气气流喷射而被吹开、吹乱,随后在加速送丝管(文丘里管)中被加速。离开喷嘴前,各根单丝基本保持平行,离开喷嘴时丝条即进行90°的转折,生成大小不同且弯曲的弧圈。由于超喂而出现一定长度的自由丝段,在丝条发生交缠的同时,在弯折点的上方发生网络,形成空气变形丝的基本结构。根据对产品的不同要求,可在空气变形机的其他机构进行热定型或割丝圈加工,使丝条表面产生类似短纤纱的绒毛。

Air deformation is mainly achieved by air deformation nozzles, as shown in Figure 13-14. The wire is sprayed into the nozzle, jetted through a stream of compressed air in the nozzle, blown, blown, and then accelerated in an accelerated wire feed tube (venturi tube). The individual filaments remain substantially parallel prior to exiting the nozzle, and the strands are rotated 90° as they exit the nozzle, forming curved loops of different sizes and curvatures. Due to excessive feeding, a free length of a certain length occurs, and when the yarn is wound, a network is formed over the bending point to form the basic structure of the air-deformed yarn. Depending on the requirements of the product, heat setting or cutting ring processing can be performed in other mechanisms of the air texturing machine to produce pile-like fluff on the surface of the yarn.

 

 

二、空气变形丝的几何结构(Air textured wire geometry)

 

空气变形丝比原丝蓬松,手感也好,具有类似短纤纱的特征,这是长丝表面几何形态和丝体结构发生变化的结果。

The air-deformed filament is more fluffy than the original yarn, and has a good hand feeling, and has the characteristics of a spun yarn, which is a result of changes in the surface geometry and the filament structure of the filament.

 

1.空气变形丝的表面几何形态(Surface geometry of air textured yarn)

 

 

空气变形丝的表面具有类似膨体纱的毛茸或大小不同的丝圈。毛茸是通过割断丝圈而形成的,故丝圈大小和分布对空气变形丝的特性有影响,可用丝圈高度和丝圈密度(单位长度内丝圈出现的次数)来描述空气变形丝表面的几何结构。丝圈高度与密度密切相关,见图13—15(a)。由图可见,丝圈的密度随着丝圈高耋的增加而减小。当丝圈高度为0.1~0.4mm时,丝圈高度每增加0.1mm.丝圈密度下降约50%;当丝圈高度在0.5mm以上时,丝圈密度趋近于零。丝圈高度与丝圈分布的均匀性也有关,见图13-15(b)。丝圈高度小,其分布较均匀;丝圈高度大,离散程度增大。

The surface of the air-deformed filament has a furry resembling a bulked yarn or a wire loop of a different size. The fur is formed by cutting the wire loop, so the size and distribution of the wire ring have an effect on the characteristics of the air textured wire. The height of the wire loop and the density of the wire ring (the number of times the wire ring appears per unit length) can be used to describe the surface of the air textured wire. Geometry. The height of the loop is closely related to the density, see Figure 13-15(a). As can be seen from the figure, the density of the wire loop decreases as the height of the wire loop increases. When the height of the wire loop is 0.1-0.4mm, the height of the wire loop is increased by 0.1mm. The wire loop density is reduced by about 50%; when the wire loop height is above 0.5 mm, the wire loop density approaches zero. The height of the loop is also related to the uniformity of the distribution of the loop, see Figure 13-15(b). The height of the wire loop is small, and its distribution is relatively uniform; the height of the wire loop is large and the degree of dispersion is increased.

 

 

2.空气变形丝的丝体结构牲(Silk structure of air deformed silk)

 

 

空气变形丝体结构与网络丝相似。它也是以高压气流产生的紊流作为加捻动力,但它的气流有横向、轴向和旋涡流,喷嘴中的丝条截面上任意一点所受到的气流速度均不同,故单丝在紊流中彼此相交形成网络结构,或为一根纤维以另一根纤维为轴心缠绕而形成错综复杂的丝体。空气变形丝的几何结构模型如图13-16所示。

The air deformed filament structure is similar to the network filament. It is also a turbulent flow generated by high-pressure airflow as a twisting force, but its airflow has lateral, axial and vortex flow, and the velocity of the airflow is different at any point on the cross section of the wire in the nozzle, so the monofilament is in turbulent flow. The intersections with each other form a network structure, or a fiber is wound with another fiber as an axis to form an intricate filament. The geometry model of the air textured yarn is shown in Figure 13-16.

 

 

三、空气变形机的组成及其作用(The composition and function of air deformation machine)

 

空气变形机主要由拉伸区、给湿变形区、稳定区、定型区、卷绕区五个部分组成(见图13—17)。

The air deformation machine is mainly composed of five parts: stretching zone, wet deformation zone, stabilization zone, shaping zone and winding zone (see Figure 13-17).

 

 

1.拉伸区(Stretch zone)

 

由喂入罗拉和拉伸罗拉组成,主要对未完全拉伸的喂入原丝进行拉伸,一般拉伸罗拉为热辊,其温度根据不同的纤维品种而定,如拉伸POY时热辊温度在60~80℃之间,也可在冷态下进行拉伸。

It consists of feeding roller and stretching roller. It mainly stretches the feed yarn which is not fully stretched. Generally, the stretching roller is a hot roller. The temperature is determined according to different fiber types, such as hot roller when stretching POY. The temperature is between 60 and 80 ° C, and it can also be stretched in a cold state.

 

2.给湿变形区(Wet deformation zone)

 

在丝条进入变形喷嘴前,先进行淋水润湿,可提高变形装置效率,增加变形效果,改善丝的均匀性和稳定性。提高润湿量,还可降低空气压力和耗用量。空气变形喷嘴是空气变形的核心,根据变形原丝的特性和最终变形丝的性质要求选择不同规格的空气变形喷嘴。

Before the yarn enters the deformation nozzle, the water is wetted first, which can improve the efficiency of the deformation device, increase the deformation effect, and improve the uniformity and stability of the wire. Increases the amount of wetting and also reduces air pressure and consumption. The air deformation nozzle is the core of air deformation, and different air deformation nozzles are selected according to the characteristics of the deformation original yarn and the properties of the final deformation yarn.

 

空气变形喷嘴不但影响变形速度、空气消耗量等经济指标,而且影响变形丝的品质。目前,喷嘴的种类很多,基本可归纳为两类,即杜邦公司Taslan系列喷嘴(见图13-14)和Heberlein公司的Hema喷嘴(见图13-1 8),美国EIVIAD公司的蛇蝎形喷嘴虽与杜邦公司的喷嘴结构不同,但其主要结构相同,属于同一类型:DupontⅪV型(用于细线密度丝)和Dupont X V(用于粗线密度丝)喷噻的效果较好,其优点是加工线密度范围大(50~1】000dtex),加工速度高达800nn/min;但调整加工线密度范围时。操作复杂,喷嘴内易积垢。Heberlein公司的T-100型或T-300型Hema喷嘴具有不易积垢、易调整的优点,其加工速度约为650m/min,喂入原丝线密度为50~700dtex,适合加工线密度小或线密度中等的衣用丝。EMAD公司的150PRN型适于加工40~500dtex的原丝,3000PRN型适合加工500~10000dtex的原丝,该喷嘴可同时喂入四股原丝,并可用不同超喂率制取包芯丝;3000PRN型喷嘴尤其适宜制作花式繁多的装饰用丝。喷嘴主要由外壳、导丝针、文丘里管、挡气球或挡气板组成。

The air deformation nozzle not only affects economic indicators such as deformation speed and air consumption, but also affects the quality of the textured yarn. At present, there are many types of nozzles, which can be basically classified into two types, namely DuPont Taslan series nozzles (see Figure 13-14) and Heberlein's Hema nozzles (see Figure 13-1 8), although the American EIVIAD company's snake-shaped nozzles It is different from DuPont's nozzle structure, but its main structure is the same, belonging to the same type: DupontXIV type (for fine line density wire) and Dupont XV (for thick line density wire) thief effect is better, its advantage is processing The linear density range is large (50~1]000dtex), and the processing speed is as high as 800nn/min; however, when the processing line density range is adjusted. The operation is complicated and the nozzle is prone to fouling. Heberlein's T-100 or T-300 type Hema nozzles have the advantages of being less prone to fouling and easy adjustment. The processing speed is about 650m/min, and the feed line density is 50-700dtex, which is suitable for processing line density or line. Medium density clothing yarn. EMAD's 150PRN type is suitable for processing 40~500dtex raw silk, 3000PRN type is suitable for processing 500~10000dtex raw silk, the nozzle can feed four strands at the same time, and can make cored wire with different overfeed rate; 3000PRN type The nozzle is particularly suitable for making a wide variety of decorative filaments. The nozzle is mainly composed of a casing, a guide wire needle, a venturi tube, a balloon or a gas barrier.

 

 

图13-18 Hema喷嘴

Figure 13-18 Hema nozzle

 

经环形窄缝加速后进入喷嘴的气流,在紊流室内产生强烈的紊流,使丝条松散。通过调节导丝针的位置,可调节喷嘴环形缝隙,以调节紊流程度。当环形缝隙面积等于或稍大于文丘里管的喉道截面时,进入紊流室的气流速度最大,变形效果最佳。喷嘴出口处的气流速度可达500~600m/s,这种超音速气流使其压强低于外界而产生激波,将压强提高到外界压强后,气流可流出去。这些气流使单丝产生不规则的变化,形成高频振动,使出口处的丝条继续蓬松。激波对离开喷嘴的丝条起阻尼减速作用,使单丝获得不同的速度,产生飘移和弯曲而形成丝圈。

The airflow entering the nozzle after being accelerated by the annular narrow slit generates strong turbulence in the turbulent flow chamber to loosen the yarn. By adjusting the position of the guide needle, the annular gap of the nozzle can be adjusted to adjust the degree of turbulence. When the annular gap area is equal to or slightly larger than the throat section of the venturi, the airflow velocity into the turbulent chamber is the largest and the deformation effect is optimal. The airflow velocity at the nozzle outlet can reach 500-600 m/s. This supersonic airflow causes the pressure to be lower than the outside to generate a shock wave. After the pressure is increased to the external pressure, the airflow can flow out. These air streams cause irregular changes in the monofilament, creating high frequency vibrations that continue to fluff the filaments at the exit. The shock wave acts as a damping deceleration on the strands leaving the nozzle, allowing the filaments to achieve different speeds, resulting in drift and bending to form a loop.

 

3.稳定区(Stable area)

 

来自变形区的外露丝圈若未拉紧,则稳定性较差,在稳定区受到由两组罗拉速度差形成的张力拉伸作用,可提高丝圈的稳定性,同时使变形丝的线密度、伸度及整个空气变形过程中各点张力达到工艺要求。该区的短纤化装置可赋予ATY短纤纱风格。

If the exposed wire loop from the deformation zone is not tightened, the stability is poor, and the tensile tension formed by the difference of the two sets of roller speeds in the stable zone can improve the stability of the wire loop and at the same time make the linear density of the textured wire. The tension at each point during the process of elongation and the entire air deformation process meets the process requirements. The area of the fiberizing device can be given an ATY spun yarn style.

 

4.定型区(Shaped area)

 

空气变形丝在一定温度下通过定型区,可降低其沸水收缩率,从而保证空气变形丝在后加工过程中的尺寸稳定性,同时将圈结缩小,使其变得更加稳定牢固,减小气圈损失。定型温度越高,气圈就越小。

The air-deformed wire passes through the shaping zone at a certain temperature, which can reduce the boiling water shrinkage rate, thereby ensuring the dimensional stability of the air-deformed wire during the post-processing, and at the same time reducing the ring-shaped knot, making it more stable and firm, reducing gas Circle loss. The higher the setting temperature, the smaller the balloon.

 

5.卷绕区(Winding area)

 

将ATY卷绕成筒子,其卷绕角a是成形的重要条件,随着a的改变,横动导丝的基本频率发生相应的改变,因而对卷绕张力产生影响,在成形条件允许的情况下,可通过改变卷绕角来微调卷绕张力。

The ATY is wound into a bobbin, and the winding angle a is an important condition for forming. As the a changes, the basic frequency of the traverse guide wire changes correspondingly, thereby affecting the winding tension, and the molding conditions permit. Next, the winding tension can be finely adjusted by changing the winding angle.

 

四、空气变形加工的主要工艺条件(Main process conditions for air deformation processing)

 

1.变影区超喂率OFT(Variation zone overfeed rate OFT)

 

变形区超喂率(Deformation zone overfeed rate):

 

 

变形区超喂率是长丝空气变形的重要工艺参数。超喂提高了长丝在喷射气流的作用下产生交缠和起圈的程度,变形丝上沿长度方向分布的丝圈增多,增大丝条的蓬松性及覆盖效果。若超喂率过低,不利于丝条的缠结成圈;但超喂率过大时,丝条表面毛圈过大,条干松散,毛圈的缠结牢度降低,均匀性和稳定性变差,给织造和后处理带来困难。另外,随着超喂率增加,变形丝线密度增大,相对强度下降,丝条结构的稳定性降低。这是由于大量的毛圈形成后,丝条中仅部分单丝受到拉伸。超喂率对空气变形丝的线密度、相对强度的影响如图13—19所示。由于变形丝的相对强度与纤维的强力和线密度有关,所以相对强度受超喂率的影响最为明显。通常以相对强度下降率来衡量空气变形丝的强力损失。有人做过实验,结果显示167dtex涤纶空气变形丝的相对强度下降率为33%~48%,333dtex涤纶空气变形丝的相对强度下降率为24%~38%。

The overfeed rate in the deformation zone is an important process parameter for filament air deformation. Ultra-feeding increases the degree of entanglement and looping of the filaments under the action of the jet stream, and the number of loops distributed along the length of the deformed filament increases, increasing the bulkiness and covering effect of the strands. If the overfeed rate is too low, it is not conducive to the entanglement of the thread into a circle; however, when the overfeed rate is too large, the surface of the thread is too large, the strip is loose, the entanglement fastness of the loop is reduced, uniformity and stability Poor sex, causing difficulties in weaving and post-processing. In addition, as the overfeed rate increases, the deformed filament density increases, the relative strength decreases, and the stability of the strand structure decreases. This is because only a portion of the monofilaments in the strand are stretched after a large number of loops are formed. The effect of overfeed rate on the linear density and relative strength of air textured yarn is shown in Figure 13-19. Since the relative strength of the textured yarn is related to the strength and linear density of the fiber, the relative strength is most affected by the overfeed rate. The strength loss of the air textured yarn is usually measured by the relative strength drop rate. Some people have done experiments, the results show that the relative strength drop rate of 167dtex polyester air textured yarn is 33%~48%, and the relative strength drop rate of 333dtex polyester air textured yarn is 24%~38%.

 

 

 

 

超喂率与空气变形丝的结构稳定性密切相关。由于丝条在空气变形后必须经稳定区机械拉伸固定,如果空气变形丝离开喷嘴时结构稳定,则恒速拉伸时其丝圈与丝条间不易滑移,丝的拉伸张力就大。如果空气变形丝结构不稳定,则拉伸时表现出稳定区张力小。因此,运行丝条在稳定区的张力值可反映空气变形丝的稳定性。超喂率提高,稳定区丝条张力下降,丝条结构稳定性降低。一般,若空气变形丝的结构不稳定值小于2%,超喂率应在25%以下。

The overfeed rate is closely related to the structural stability of the air textured yarn. Since the yarn must be mechanically stretched and fixed in the stable zone after the air is deformed, if the structure of the air-deformed yarn leaves the nozzle is stable, the wire loop and the yarn are not easily slipped during constant-speed stretching, and the tensile tension of the wire is large. . If the structure of the air textured yarn is unstable, the tension in the stable zone is small when stretched. Therefore, the tension value of the running yarn in the stable zone can reflect the stability of the air textured yarn. The overfeed rate is increased, the tension of the yarn in the stable zone is lowered, and the structural stability of the yarn is lowered. Generally, if the structural instability value of the air textured yarn is less than 2%, the overfeed rate should be less than 25%.

 

超喂率对空气变形丝的风格也起着决定性的作用。对于两股喂入原丝,超喂率相同时,得到并列型空气变形丝;超喂率不同时,则得到包芯丝。有规律地改变超喂率,使丝圈大小发生周期性变化,可生产粗细间隔丝。若喂入不同颤色的原丝,可生产各色间隔丝。

The overfeed rate also plays a decisive role in the style of air textured yarn. For the two feed yarns, when the overfeed rate is the same, the side-by-side air-deformed yarn is obtained; when the overfeed rate is different, the cored yarn is obtained. The overfeed rate is changed regularly, and the size of the wire loop is periodically changed to produce a thick and thin spacer wire. If the raw yarns of different tremors are fed, the spacer yarns can be produced.

 

随着变形区超喂率的增加,变形张力稍微下降,而稳定区、定型区的丝条张力和卷绕张力明显降低。因此,改变超喂率时,其他工艺参数要相应调整。

As the overfeed rate of the deformation zone increases, the deformation tension decreases slightly, while the tension and winding tension of the stable zone and the shaped zone are significantly reduced. Therefore, when changing the overfeed rate, other process parameters should be adjusted accordingly.

 

2.加工速度(Processing speed)

 

提高加工速度,可提高生产效率.但两者并非成正比。因为丝速提高会导致线密度增加率下降;由图13—20可知.丝速从300m/min增至600m/min,线密度增加率下降35%~40%:丝条通过喷嘴的速度提高时,丝与喷嘴内气流的相对速度就下降,即气流动态压力对丝条的作用力下降.从而使线密度增加率下降。在同样的加工速度下,线密度小的成品丝其线密度增加率稍高于线密度大的丝。在同一喷嘴、丝道直径一定的条件下,线密度小的丝其各根单丝在气流作用下容易发生位移,而线密度大的丝因单丝根数较多,位移时受到空间的限制和单丝间的互相约束,因此每根单丝的位移、弯曲、交缠、成圈的过程较困难。故原丝线密度愈高,加工速度应愈低。通常,加工55~77dtex丝条时.速度取700m/min;167~330dtex.取500~600m/min;700dtex以上,取300m/min。若加工两股330dtex丝条,其单丝线密度在3dtex以下时,加工速度为550m/min,如果稳定区设置了短纤化装置,加工速度在400m/min以下。

Improve processing speed and increase production efficiency. But the two are not directly proportional. Because the increase in wire speed will lead to a decrease in the rate of increase in linear density; as can be seen from Figure 13-20. The wire speed is increased from 300m/min to 600m/min, and the linear density increase rate is decreased by 35%~40%. When the speed of the yarn through the nozzle is increased, the relative velocity of the airflow in the wire and the nozzle is decreased, that is, the dynamic pressure of the airflow is on the wire. The force is falling. Thereby, the linear density increase rate is lowered. At the same processing speed, the finished yarn having a small linear density has a linear density increase rate slightly higher than that of a wire having a high linear density. Under the condition of the same nozzle and the diameter of the wire, the filaments with small linear density are easy to be displaced under the action of airflow, while the filaments with large linear density are more limited by the number of filaments. The mutual constraint between the monofilament and the monofilament is difficult, so the process of displacement, bending, entanglement and looping of each monofilament is difficult. Therefore, the higher the density of the original thread, the lower the processing speed should be. Usually, when processing 55 ~ 77dtex yarn. The speed is 700m/min; 167~330dtex. Take 500 ~ 600m / min; 700dtex or more, take 300m / min. If two strands of 330dtex yarn are processed and the monofilament linear density is below 3dtex, the processing speed is 550m/min. If the stabilizing zone is provided with a short fiberizing device, the processing speed is below 400m/min.

 

 

在拉伸倍数不变的情况下,加工速度升高,则拉伸张力下降,对拉伸产生不利影响。故提高加工速度时,要相应调整拉伸倍数。

When the draw ratio is constant, the processing speed is increased, and the tensile tension is lowered, which adversely affects the stretching. Therefore, when increasing the processing speed, adjust the draw ratio accordingly.

 

加工速度提高时,各区丝条张力相应降低。有时张力降低较大,使生产无法继续进行,必须对有关工艺参数进行调整。例如,丝速提高,稳定区的张力下降,使变形丝丝圈不稳定性增加;丝速提高,热定型时间缩短而不利于定型,但定型区张力降低又有利于定型。为此有人做过实验,结果表明,随着加工速度的提高,丝条的热定型效果变差,表现为空气变形丝的沸水收缩率上升。

When the processing speed is increased, the tension of the yarns in each zone is correspondingly reduced. Sometimes the tension is reduced so that production cannot continue, and the relevant process parameters must be adjusted. For example, the wire speed is increased, the tension in the stable zone is lowered, and the instability of the deformed wire loop is increased; the wire speed is increased, and the heat setting time is shortened, which is disadvantageous for setting, but the tension in the setting zone is lowered to facilitate the setting. For this reason, some experiments have been carried out. The results show that as the processing speed increases, the heat setting effect of the yarn becomes worse, which is manifested by an increase in the boiling water shrinkage of the air-deformed yarn.

 

3.空气压力(Air pressure)

 

空气压力的变化会引起气流状态的变化,使变形过程发生变化。提高压缩空气压力,有利于毛圈形成,变形效果增强。但实验结果表明,只需O.6~0.9MPa压力就能满足空气变形工艺和变形丝质量的要求,超过此压力对变形效果的影响不大。

Changes in air pressure cause changes in the state of the airflow, causing changes in the deformation process. Increasing the pressure of the compressed air is beneficial to the formation of the loop and the deformation effect is enhanced. But the experimental results show that only O. The pressure of 6~0.9MPa can meet the requirements of air deformation process and textured wire quality. Exceeding this pressure has little effect on the deformation effect.

 

4.定型温度和定型时间(Styling temperature and setting time)

 

在定型加热器长度一定的前提下,定型效果取决于丝条的行走速度和加热器的温度。由于随着定型温度的提高,纤维的内聚应变收缩加大,内应力松弛也愈彻底。故在一定的范围内,定型温度愈高、时间愈长。空气变形丝的毛圈结愈紧.变形丝结构稳定性愈好,沸水收缩率愈低。由于空气变形丝的毛圈内充满空气,其传热效果比拉伸变形丝差,如果要求其丝芯能达到同样的毛至效果,就必须处长加热时间,因此,变形速度对空气变形丝的定型效果的影响尤为明显。

Under the premise that the length of the shaped heater is constant, the shaping effect depends on the walking speed of the yarn and the temperature of the heater. As the cohesive strain shrinkage of the fiber increases as the setting temperature increases, the internal stress relaxation becomes more thorough. Therefore, within a certain range, the higher the setting temperature, the longer the time. The tight loop of the air-deformed wire is tighter. The better the structural stability of the textured yarn, the lower the boiling water shrinkage. Since the loop of the air-deformed wire is filled with air, the heat transfer effect is worse than that of the stretch-deformed wire. If the wire core is required to achieve the same hair-to-effect, the heating time must be long. Therefore, the deformation speed is air-deformed. The effect of the stereotype effect is particularly evident.

 

定型还能使空气变形丝的外露丝圈缩小,提高空气变形丝的稳定性,降低沸水收缩率,增加蓬松性,改善丝的加工工性能和织物手感。随着定型温度的提高,空气变形丝的应变增加,定型张力明显升高,但变形丝的沸水收缩率下降,

The shaping can also reduce the exposed wire loop of the air-deformed wire, improve the stability of the air-deformed wire, reduce the boiling water shrinkage rate, increase the bulkiness, and improve the processing property of the wire and the hand feeling of the fabric. With the increase of the setting temperature, the strain of the air-deformed wire increases, the setting tension increases obviously, but the boiling water shrinkage rate of the textured yarn decreases.

 

定型温度为190~230℃,随着温度升高,空气变形丝的强度略有下降。定型对空气变形丝的相对强度的影响还与丝的线密度有关.单丝愈细,丝圈愈多,变形丝的相对强度下降愈多。空气变形丝的弹性恢复率随着定型温度的提高丽略有下降。

The setting temperature is 190-230 ° C, and the strength of the air-deformed wire decreases slightly as the temperature increases. The effect of stereotypes on the relative strength of air textured filaments is also related to the linear density of the filaments. The finer the monofilament, the more the loops, the more the relative strength of the textured filaments decreases. The elastic recovery rate of the air-deformed filament decreases slightly with the increase of the setting temperature.

 

5.张力(Tension)

 

空气变形加工时,丝条在各区的张力大小对成品的性质影响很大。若原丝喂入张力过高,会引起POY线密度变化,导致条干不匀。变形区的丝条张力取决于超喂率和给湿量,低张力有利于丝条在喷嘴中开松、卷曲成圈。但原丝喂入张力过低会引起供丝状态不稳,造成拉伸不匀,且断头率提高,给丝条操作带来困难。丝条张力宜控制在3.0cN左右。稳定区的张力对毛圈的缠结牢度、毛圈形态、卷曲稳定性等均有影响.宜控制在5.5~8.0cN。低张力定型有利于纤维内应力松弛,提高空气变形效果,降低空气变形丝的沸水收缩率。卷绕张力要根据加工丝条线密度和筒子密度要求而定,过高会损坏空气变形丝表面的毛圈,过低会影响筒子成形。

When the air is deformed, the tension of the yarn in each zone has a great influence on the properties of the finished product. If the tension of the original yarn is too high, it will cause a change in the density of the POY line, resulting in unevenness of the strip. The tension of the yarn in the deformation zone depends on the overfeed rate and the amount of moisture supplied. The low tension facilitates the opening and curling of the yarn in the nozzle. However, if the original yarn feeding tension is too low, the feeding state will be unstable, resulting in uneven stretching, and the breaking rate is increased, which brings difficulty to the yarn processing. The tension of the thread should be controlled at about 3.0 cN. The tension of the stable zone has an effect on the entanglement fastness, loop shape and curl stability of the loop. Should be controlled at 5.5 ~ 8.0cN. Low tension setting is beneficial to the stress relaxation in the fiber, improving the air deformation effect and reducing the boiling water shrinkage of the air deformed wire. The winding tension is determined according to the linear density of the processed yarn and the density of the package. Too high will damage the loop of the surface of the air-deformed wire. Too low will affect the formation of the package.

 

6.给湿量(Wet volume)

 

丝条进入空气变形喷嘴前,先进行给水润湿,可明显增强变形效果,提高空气变形丝的均匀性和结构稳定性。提高给水量,还可降低压缩空气压力和耗量。因为空气湿度的提高,可增强喷嘴内的湍流状态。图13-21为给水与未给水的丝条张力随超喂率的变化。由图可见,在同样的超喂率条件下,给水时丝条张力比未给水时高出许多,故变形效果好得多。丝条给水量要均匀,否则会影响热定型效果,不仅使定型牢度变差,而且会造成染色不匀。给水量由丝条张力、加工速度、丝条线密度、变形超喂率而定,张力要求高、线密度大、加工速度快、超喂率大,则给水量大。但给水量过大会引起变形过程中丝条张力波动,且易将丝条表面的油剂冲洗掉,使丝条在热箱内产生静电,造成定型不匀,影响染色性能。一般给水量宜控制在1.0~1.5L/h。给水量过低,则变形效果差,线密度降低;给水量过高,不但对变形效果改善不大,而且增加用水成本。

Before the yarn enters the air deformation nozzle, the water is wetted first, which can obviously enhance the deformation effect and improve the uniformity and structural stability of the air deformation yarn. Increasing the amount of water supplied also reduces the pressure and consumption of compressed air. The turbulence in the nozzle is enhanced by the increase in air humidity. Figure 13-21 shows the change in the tension of the feed line between the feed water and the unfed water with the overfeed rate. It can be seen from the figure that under the same conditions of overfeeding, the tension of the yarn when water is supplied is much higher than that when the water is not supplied, so the deformation effect is much better. The amount of water supplied to the thread should be uniform, otherwise it will affect the heat setting effect, which not only makes the setting fastness worse, but also causes uneven dyeing. The amount of water supplied is determined by the tension of the yarn, the processing speed, the linear density of the thread, and the overfeed rate. The tension is high, the linear density is high, the processing speed is fast, and the overfeed rate is large, so the water supply is large. However, the excessive amount of water supply causes the tension of the thread during the deformation process to fluctuate, and the oil on the surface of the thread is easily washed away, so that the wire generates static electricity in the hot box, causing uneven shaping and affecting the dyeing performance. Generally, the water supply should be controlled at 1.0~1.5L/h. If the water supply is too low, the deformation effect is poor and the linear density is lowered; if the water supply is too high, not only the deformation effect is not improved, but also the water cost is increased.

 

 

7.丝条的单丝线密度(Monofilament linear density)

 

变形丝的单丝线密度增大.则其弯曲刚度提高,丝条不易交缠起圈,空气变形丝结构不稳定性增大,空气变形丝的表面出现大丝圈和浮丝,从而空气变形丝的质量下降。当单丝线密度超过2.8dtex时,加工困难;若单丝线密度超过3.9dtex,难以获得外观均匀、结构稳定、表面蓬松的变形丝。对于总线密度在1000dtex以上的装饰用空气变形丝,单丝线密度则不受此限制。

The monofilament line density of the textured yarn increases. Then, the bending rigidity is improved, the wire is not easy to be entangled, the structural instability of the air-deformed wire is increased, and the large wire ring and the floating wire appear on the surface of the air-deformed wire, so that the quality of the air-deformed wire is lowered. When the monofilament linear density exceeds 2.8 dtex, the processing is difficult; if the monofilament linear density exceeds 3.9 dtex, it is difficult to obtain a textured yarn having a uniform appearance, a stable structure, and a fluffy surface. For decorative air textured yarns with a bus density of 1000 dtex or more, the monofilament linear density is not limited by this.

 

单丝线密度增加,变形丝不稳定性增加,但线密度在2dtex以下时,不稳定性有下降趋势。这是由于线密度小的丝经变形后内部摩擦增强而降低了不稳定性。随着丝条变粗,交缠和丝圈成形开始恶化,形成丝圈少和交缠差的丝,并降低稳定性。单丝线密度为2dtex以下的长丝用于变形加工是最适宜的。单丝线密度为1.67dtex以下的丝呈现较好的交缠芯和表面丝圈,单丝线密度为6.8dtex的丝上则几乎无丝圈。

The density of the monofilament increases, and the instability of the textured yarn increases. However, when the linear density is below 2 dtex, the instability tends to decrease. This is because the internal friction of the wire having a small linear density is enhanced to reduce the instability. As the strands become thicker, the entanglement and the loop forming begin to deteriorate, forming less filaments and poorly intertwined filaments, and reducing stability. Filaments having a monofilament linear density of 2 dtex or less are most suitable for deformation processing. The filaments having a monofilament linear density of 1.67 dtex or less exhibited a better interlaced core and a surface loop, and the filament having a monofilament linear density of 6.8 dtex was almost free of a wire loop.

 

8.原丝总线密度(Raw wire bus density)

 

各种类型的喷嘴都有一个合适的线密度范围.当超过合适的总线密度时,变形效果不佳。线密度增加时,气流进一步变成湍流,从而影响变形效果;另外,在多根单丝存在的条件下,由于丝圈数增加,施加张力时丝圈被抛出的可能性增大。若使用Y-100型Hema喷嘴,单丝线密度1.67dtclxl适宜的单丝根数小于66根;而同样变形条件下,使用Y-341型喷嘴时,适宜的总线密度为333dtex,单丝根数是198根。

Various types of nozzles have a suitable line density range. When the proper bus density is exceeded, the deformation effect is not good. When the linear density is increased, the airflow further becomes turbulent, thereby affecting the deformation effect; in addition, in the presence of a plurality of monofilaments, the possibility that the wire loop is thrown when tension is applied increases due to an increase in the number of turns. If the Y-100 type Hema nozzle is used, the single filament density of 1.67dtclxl is less than 66; and under the same deformation condition, when the Y-341 nozzle is used, the suitable bus density is 333dtex, and the number of filaments is 198 roots.

 

9.喷嘴类型(Nozzle type)

 

喷嘴类型不同,其生产的变形丝的稳定性、线密度和强度的变化也不同。standard—CoreHema喷嘴生产的ATY的稳定性好,而用Taslan X Ⅳ型喷嘴制成的变形丝稳定性较差。Taslan XⅣ喷嘴生产的变形丝,其表面以大的丝圈和弧圈为主;但用Hema喷嘴生产的变形丝拥有较多数量的小型丝圈。使用T-100型和T一341型Hema喷嘴变形的丝有相似的不稳定性,但变形丝的线密度和强度具有不同的特性。由T-341型Hema喷嘴变形的丝具有较高的线密度,增加值在17%左右。这种喷嘴与其他喷嘴相比,压缩空气的消耗量虽然较大,但能得到令人满意的变形,因为这种喷嘴可得到较高的气流速度。由T一341型喷嘴加工的变形丝,其强度下降最大可达到约50%。

The type of nozzle is different, and the deformation, linear density and strength of the textured yarn produced are also different. standard—The ATY produced by the CoreHema nozzle has good stability, while the textured yarn made with Taslan X IV nozzle has poor stability. The deformed wire produced by the Taslan XIV nozzle has a large wire ring and an arc ring on its surface; however, the textured wire produced by the Hema nozzle has a large number of small wire loops. The filaments deformed using the T-100 and T-341 Hema nozzles have similar instability, but the linear density and strength of the textured yarn have different characteristics. The wire deformed by the T-341 type Hema nozzle has a high linear density and an increase of about 17%. Such a nozzle has a larger consumption of compressed air than other nozzles, but can be satisfactorily deformed because such a nozzle can attain a higher air velocity. The textured yarn processed by the T-341 nozzle has a strength drop of up to about 50%.

 

几种变形喷嘴的变形效率依次为:Ts一411型Hema.Taslan XⅣ型,T一100型和standard—C0re Hema。

另外,卷绕超喂、卷绕筒子的卷绕角、原丝质量、加工车间的温湿度等均不同程度地影响空气变形丝的性能。在制定空气变形工艺条件时,既要考虑产品用途,还要考虑原丝性质和工艺类型;既要考虑每个工艺因素的个性,又要考虑各个工艺条件问的相互联系。例如,生产仿毛型机织服装面料用ATY,工艺要求采用两根丝并列进行加工,单丝线密度要求小于2.75dtex。因仿毛织物对空气变形丝的沸水收缩率和卷曲稳定性要求较高,必须有足够的定型温度和定型时间,但定型温度高会影响强力,能耗也增加。

The deformation efficiency of several deformation nozzles is: Ts-411 type Hema. Taslan XIV type, T-100 type and standard-C0re Hema.

In addition, the winding overfeed, the winding angle of the winding bobbin, the quality of the raw yarn, the temperature and humidity of the processing plant, etc. all affect the performance of the air textured yarn to varying degrees. In the formulation of air deformation process conditions, it is necessary to consider the product use, but also consider the nature of the raw silk and the type of process; it is necessary to consider the individuality of each process factor, and also consider the interrelationship of each process condition. For example, ATY is used to produce wool-like woven garment fabrics, and the process requires two filaments to be processed side by side. The monofilament linear density requirement is less than 2.75 dtex. Because the wool-like fabric has high requirements on the boiling water shrinkage and crimp stability of the air-deformed yarn, it must have sufficient setting temperature and setting time, but the high setting temperature will affect the strength and the energy consumption will also increase.

 

五、空气变形丝的应用(Application of air textured yarn)

 

同假捻变形丝相比,空气变形丝具有短纤纱的外观,无假捻变形丝的极光和蜡感,覆盖效果和保温性与精纺纱相似。采用不同变形加工条件,可使空气变形丝具有毛型、短纤纱型、麻型或丝型的外观及手感。空气变形丝的类型有许多,归纳起来可分为三种。

Compared with the false twisted textured yarn, the air textured yarn has the appearance of a spun yarn, the aurora and waxy feel of the false twisted textured yarn, and the covering effect and heat preservation property are similar to those of the worsted yarn. Using different deformation processing conditions, the air-deformed yarn can have the appearance and feel of a wool type, a spun yarn type, a hemp type or a silk type. There are many types of air textured yarns, which can be divided into three types.

 

1.单股空气变形丝(Single air deformed wire)

 

是指将一股长丝喂入喷嘴进行空气变形,原丝线密度为78~333dtex。根据超喂不同,可适当调节丝圈大小,蓬松度为20%左右。

It means that a filament is fed into the nozzle for air deformation, and the density of the original yarn is 78-333 dtex. According to different super-feeding, the size of the wire loop can be adjusted appropriately, and the bulkiness is about 20%

 

2.并列空气变形丝(Parallel air deformation wire)

 

是指将两股或两股以上的长丝以相同的超喂率平行喂入喷嘴,进行空气变形,原丝线密度为56~333dtex,成品线密度为111~999dtex。可利用短纤化装置将ATY表面1/3左右的丝圈拉断形成绒毛,丝圈不外露,手感、光泽和外观很像短纤纱.389dtex左右的产品最具特色。

It means that two or more filaments are fed into the nozzle in parallel at the same overfeed rate for air deformation. The density of the original thread is 56-333 dtex, and the density of the finished thread is 111-999 dtex. The short fiberizing device can be used to break the wire loop of about 1/3 of the ATY surface to form fluff, the wire loop is not exposed, and the hand feeling, luster and appearance are very similar to the spun yarn. The products of around 389dtex are the most distinctive.

 

3.皮芯空气变形丝(Leather core air textured yarn)

 

是指将两股及两股以上的长丝以不同的超喂率喂入喷嘴,超喂小的丝条充当芯丝,超喂大的丝条充当皮丝.成品丝的线密度为333~1221 dtex。

It means that two or more filaments are fed into the nozzle at different overfeed rates. The super-feeding small thread acts as a core wire, and the super-feeding large thread acts as a skin. The linear density of the finished yarn is 333 to 1221 dtex.

 

空气变形加工时.还可将不同的原丝进行混纤,形成各种花色丝。原丝可以是不同种类的合纤,如涤锦、涤粘、涤氨等;也可采用规格不同的同一种纤维,如线密度、捻度、收缩率、截面形状、颜色不同:

When air deformation processing. Different raw yarns can also be blended to form various color threads. The raw silk can be different kinds of synthetic fibers, such as polyester, polyester, polyester, etc.; the same fiber with different specifications can be used, such as linear density, twist, shrinkage, cross-sectional shape and color:

 

用空气变形丝织成花呢,织物的物理指标,除活泼率外,均可超过假捻变形的低弹丝织物。为改善空气变形丝织物的活泼率,一般可采用空气变形丝与假捻变形的低弹丝或其他德赢app苹果版长丝交织。

The air-deformed silk is woven into a tweed, and the physical index of the fabric, in addition to the active rate, can exceed the false-twisted low-elastic silk fabric. In order to improve the activity rate of the air-deformed silk fabric, it is generally possible to use an air-deformed yarn to be interlaced with a false-twisted low-elastic yarn or other chemical fiber filaments.

 

空气变形丝可制作衣料、汽车座垫铺饰布、家具用铺饰布、地毯、行李袋、袜子等。尤其在衣料方面,近年来用途更广,可制薄型织物及厚型织物,用于男女西服、夹克、大衣、滑雪衣、风衣、外衣、礼服、运动服、衬衫、连衣裙、游泳衣、内衣等。特别是用细特丝、异形丝、复合丝、阳离子改性涤纶长丝、母液或原液着色丝作为原丝时,经混纤生产出各种花色丝,由此开发的各种产品深受消费者的欢迎。随着科学技术的发展、变形喷嘴的不断改进,将开发出性能更优异的特色空气变形丝,应用于服装、装饰和工业等领域。

Air-deformed silk can be used to make fabrics, car seat cushions, furniture fabrics, carpets, duffel bags, socks, etc. Especially in the field of clothing, in recent years, it is more widely used, and can be used to make thin fabrics and thick fabrics for men and women suits, jackets, coats, ski clothes, windbreakers, outerwear, dresses, sportswear, shirts, dresses, swimwear, underwear, etc. . In particular, when fine filaments, shaped filaments, composite filaments, cationically modified polyester filaments, mother liquors or raw liquid colored filaments are used as the raw yarns, various colored yarns are produced by blending fibers, and various products developed thereby are deeply consumed. Welcome. With the development of science and technology and the continuous improvement of deformation nozzles, special air-deformed yarns with superior performance will be developed for use in clothing, decoration and industrial fields.

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